Chung tay bảo tồn 26 loài rùa cạn, rùa nước ngọt của Việt Nam

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Southeast Asia in general and Vietnam in particular is the region with the most diverse species of tortoise and freshwater turtles in the world. In which, Southeast Asia has more than 90 species, accounting for more than 25% of all known tortoise and freshwater turtle species.

Despite the high diversity and importance of Southeast Asia for tortoise and freshwater turtles, many of these species remain among the world’s most threatened species.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s 2011 report on tortoises and freshwater turtles globally ranked 17 Asian turtle species among the world’s 25 most threatened species.

Meanwhile, Vietnam has 26 species of tortoise and freshwater turtles distributed naturally with 23 species listed in the lists of endangered and rare species, with 8 species banned from exploitation and use for commercial purposes. commercial.

Currently, all species of tortoise and freshwater turtle native to Vietnam are protected under Vietnamese and international laws. Accordingly, all acts of hunting, catching, raising, confining, killing, storing, transporting, trading, and collecting specimens of tortoises and freshwater turtles in contravention of the law are strictly prohibited acts. ban.

Currently, there are 8 species of tortoise and freshwater turtle listed in the List of endangered precious and rare species prioritized for protection promulgated together with Decree No. 160/2013/ND-CP, amending and supplementing 64/2019/ND-CP, on criteria for species identification and the Government’s management regime for endangered precious and rare species prioritized for protection (hereinafter referred to as ND160).

This is a group of species protected at the highest level under the law. Any violation against individuals, body parts that are inseparable from life and products of these species can be considered for criminal prosecution with a maximum penalty of up to 15 years in prison. for individuals or VND 15 billion for legal entities.

Overall, Vietnam has 26 native tortoise and freshwater turtle species listed in the Appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (hereinafter referred to as CITES). In which, 4 species are listed in Appendix I, 20 species are listed in Appendix II and 1 species is listed in Appendix III.

In addition, Decree No. 06/2019/ND-CP, amended and supplemented by Decree No. 84/2021/ND-CP, on the management of endangered, precious and rare forest plants and animals and plants The Government’s implementation of CITES Convention (hereinafter referred to as ND06 for short) also included 9 native tortoise and freshwater turtle species in group IB and 17 species in group IIB in the list of endangered and precious forest plants and animals. , rarely issued together with this Decree.

In which, 9 types of group I include: Southern three-striped box turtles, Central yellow-fronted box turtles (Bureau box turtles), three-striped box turtles (Golden turtles), Northern yellow-fronted box turtles, Yellow-fronted box turtles Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Box Turtle), Central Turtle, Big Head Turtle, Prize, Sinhoe Prize.

And 17 types of group II include: Crab, Three Thorns, Black Backed Box Turtle, Sand Turtle, Asian Land Turtle, Seponean Land Turtle, Pul kin Land Turtle, Speng le Ri Tortoise, Tooth Turtle, Land Turtle Big, Golden Mountain Tortoise, Three-Houred Tortoise, Edged Mountain Tortoise, Silent Tortoise, Red-necked Tortoise, Four-Eyed Tortoise, Big-necked Turtle.

In addition, the red-eared turtle is a species that is often found and sold publicly, including serving the purpose of freeing animals on holidays and Tet. However, very few people notice that the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) is on the List of invasive alien species promulgated together with Circular 35/2018/TT-BTNMT dated December 28, 2018 on criteria identify and promulgate the List of invasive alien species.

For red-eared turtles, based on regulations on sanctioning administrative violations in the field of environmental protection, acts of raising, storing, transporting, planting, transplanting, exporting and importing invasive alien species will be administratively sanctioned up to 1 billion VND for individuals depending on the seriousness of the violation.

Currently, there are many rumors and unfounded information spreading about the effects of turtle meat such as curing cardiovascular disease, cancer, physiology… Some people think that eating turtle meat stewed with red silk, Lotus seeds, black beans, can cure cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure.

Regarding this issue, Dr. Quan Van Hung – Institute of Ethnic Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh City confirmed that about turtles, there has been no research to determine which turtle meat is good for heart disease.

Especially with the golden tortoise, it is rumored to be an extremely rare species, living on the great thousand, absorbing the aura of heaven and earth, so the flesh and blood is pure, great, eating to enhance vitality, especially those with heart disease if If you drink wine mixed with turtle bile, the turtle’s blood will be gone.

However, medical experts believe that golden turtle is not a tonic for yang, yang, kidney yang or kidney fire, so using it incorrectly will make the disease worse.

In addition, from the medical literature of the past and present, there is no document mentioning the use of blood, bile, and feces of golden mountain turtles in the treatment of cancer or heart diseases.

Not to mention, if keeping turtles as pets, there is a high risk of infection, and the owner is also likely to be breaking the law. First, if the owner is not careful to keep his distance, turtle bites can be an existential risk.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) once published an investigation showing the number of salmonella infections related to pet turtles. This bacteria lives on the shells and skin of turtles. Accordingly, salmonella is a gastrointestinal infection, with the common symptom of diarrhea. In addition, other symptoms are fever, stomach cramps …, severe cases can lead to death.

According to experts, keeping turtles is not only dangerous for both owners and pets. Because turtles can carry diseases or be vectors of disease. Raising turtles is not easy, especially with fastidious species that need special care. And turtle owners are also easily caught in the law if their pets are in a group protected by law.

Specifically, from a legal perspective, most native tortoise and freshwater turtle species are protected by Vietnamese law, under the 2015 Penal Code, as amended and supplemented in 2017. Violations related to these species can be prosecuted for criminal liability with a penalty of up to 15 years in prison for individuals and 15 billion VND for legal entities.

It can be said that poaching and illegal trade and habitat loss are the two main threats to the survival of turtle species. In particular, illegal hunting and trade is considered the main cause of the endangered species of many native turtles of Vietnam.

Despite the efforts of law enforcement agencies and conservation organizations at home and abroad, controlling the wildlife trade in general and the online turtle trade is still very difficult.

According to the report “Online Turtle Market: Exciting Turtle Market on Facebook and Youtube in Vietnam in 2021” published by the Center for People and Nature (Pannature) and the Asian Turtle Conservation Program, the survey results On the two platforms Facebook and Youtube in 2021 shows that the turtle market on social networks in Vietnam is very active, of which 2021 is the strongest growth year compared to previous years.

Unlike Facebook, Youtube has only one way to post content, videos and some intro information. Youtube channels often avoid the review by choosing the right images, then inserting content about buying and selling turtles, contact information directly into the video instead of writing in the description.

Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are the two localities with the highest number of online turtle trading activities in the country. Among the channels that can be located, the number of online stores in Hanoi is the highest with 19 pages; followed by Ho Chi Minh City with 17 pages.

This growth is accompanied by the trend of raising turtles as pets and pets among young people. The exchange and trade of ornamental turtles on these two platforms has existed for many years, the oldest YouTube channel on trading and raising turtles was established in 2009; The oldest Facebook page and group was born in 2013. Over time, the online turtle trade market has grown in both quantity, market size and business form, including species that are not recognized. commercial license.

Facing the above situation, many programs and projects to protect and protect tortoises and freshwater turtles in Vietnam are being implemented by organizations, including the Asian Turtle Conservation Program (ATP). – specialized organization in the research and conservation of turtles in Vietnam.

Hoang Van Ha, a member of ATP, said that, building, implementing, and carrying out many research and conservation activities inside and outside with the most endangered species in Vietnam. Among these, with on-site conservation projects, the Hoan Kiem Turtle Conservation Project in the North of Vietnam has been implemented since 2003 until now.

In addition, other long-term projects of ATP focus on the Central Tortoise, the yellow-fronted box turtle in the central region of Vietnam. Recently, ATP has also focused on research and conservation of big-headed turtles, a critically endangered species with special conservation value on a global scale.

With translocation conservation activities, ATP has cooperated with Cuc Phuong National Park, Wildlife Rescue Centers in Vietnam to rescue, restore health and re-release native species of Vietnam’s turtles. “, Hoang Van Ha added.

At the Turtle Conservation Center (TCC) in Cuc Phuong, Ms. Nguyen Thu Thuy – coordinator of the ATP’s rescue, training and animal management program working here said that from 2015 onwards, every each year TCC receives 200 to 400 individuals of about 15 to 20 different species of turtles, mainly from illegal trade seizures, of which only 6 to 7% of individuals are from voluntary individuals. transfer.

Compared with the reported number of tortoise and freshwater confiscations for the years 1995-2000, this amount is less than 10% of the previous confiscation. This shows that the number of turtles in the wild of Vietnam has been seriously reduced.

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Therefore, with the specificity of being a rescue facility for species confiscated from illegal trade and hunting, when there is a need for rescue, the members of TCC work day and night to go to the rescue. animals as soon as possible after receiving and processing information.

Just like when returning animals to the wild, they need to make sure the turtles are released into the correct range and habitat suitable for each species. So there are trips from North to South and they have to work continuously for almost a week until the last individual is safely returned to the wild.

In addition to Cuc Phuong National Park, Pu Hu Nature Reserve (Thanh Hoa) is also implementing a conservation program for tortoises and freshwater turtles with 4 groups of urgent solutions, 7 integrated solutions for conservation and conservation. develop turtle populations here.

In particular, focus on strengthening the management, monitoring, strengthening forest patrols in high-risk areas. In addition, it is necessary to improve the capacity of the forest rangers, promote education and communication to the people, vigorously handle violations and attract the cooperation of the community.

To protect Vietnam’s tortoise and freshwater turtles from the risk of poaching and illegal trade, leading to extinction, it requires the cooperation of the whole community.

On the side of the authorities, on September 12, 2019, the Prime Minister issued Decision 1176/QD-TTg, approving the “Program to conserve Vietnam’s endangered turtle species until 2025, with a vision to 2030”. “.

This is a conservation program for endangered turtle species contributing to the conservation of biodiversity in Vietnam, in which conservation of endangered turtle species is the responsibility of the whole society, management agencies, all organizations, businesses and individuals. In addition, promote socialization and strengthen international cooperation in the conservation of endangered turtle species.

The overall objective of the program is that Vietnam’s endangered turtle populations and their habitats are protected and developed sustainably, contributing to the conservation of Vietnam’s biodiversity.

More specifically, the program will develop a system of legal documents on turtle conservation; strengthen investigation and research on turtle species; building effective turtle protection models; strengthening law enforcement and management; raise awareness and community participation in turtle conservation.

Meanwhile, each citizen should be a wise consumer, equipped with the necessary knowledge, and have the right understanding of tortoises and freshwater turtles protected by law.

Absolutely do not disturb turtles when they see them in the wild, do not keep turtles as pets or illegally hunt, trade, and consume live turtles and turtle products.

When detecting and witnessing violations related to turtles, all citizens can call the hotline 1800-1522 or contact local authorities to report.

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